Acoustic Capabilities of Existing Observing Systems

Cabled Systems

relates to time synchrony between elements and between the GPS time. specifies the time interval between data downloads. is the depth at which the sensors are located. indicates whether or not the acoustic system is calibrated. highlights other data available or planned from the same region of the acoustic sensors. conveys how accessible the data are to the public. refers to the original and/or current sponsor providing funding support for the system. indicates the societal purpose for which the system was originally designed reports the years of system installation and projected life expectancy of the system.
Title Geographical Scale Locationsort descending Latitude Longitude Human Activity Natural Activity Projected Change Acoustics Operational Units (Auto) Mode (Mobile) Frequency Bandwith Directionality Time Synch/Precision Duty Cycle Data Downloads # Elements Depth Calibrated Ancillary Data Data Availability Integration Possibility Sponsor Society Value Installation Life Expectancy Audio Clips
IOOS No
OOS No
PALAOA 100s km Antarctica none, low geophysical, whales Yes 10 Hz-198 kHz H ms continuous continuous 2 200 m Yes CTD, video, meteorology upon request No AWI biodiversity, ecosystems 2006 + decade
Ocean Tracking Network 1 km Arctic: Bras d'Or lakes (under development) fishing fish, acoustically tagged fish and invertebrates As per OTN and affiliates' data policies Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI)
CTBTO basin Ascension Island-North -7.845 -14.480 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 847m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
CTBTO basin Ascension Island-South -8.941 -14.648 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 860m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO early 2000s + decades
AUTEC ~1250 km2 Bahamas military odontocetes, beaked whale Yes ~50 Hz-45 kHz N 500 μs continuous continuous 91 ~1200-2000 m Mixed SVP upon request, screened Yes U.S. Navy >2020
PLOCAN coastal Canary Islands 27.9833N 15.3667W shipping, ocean renewable energy mysticetes, odontocetes, beaked whale ocean renewable energy No under definition under definition under definition continuous continuous under definition 100m Yes
CTBTO basin Cape Lewin -34.892 114.153 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 3 (1 triad) 1055m Yes no approval needed, https://www.ctbto.org/ No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
CTBTO basin Crozet Island-North -46.180 51.590 low Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 555m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
CTBTO basin Crozet Island-South -46.885 51.794 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 551m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
CTBTO basin Diego Garcia-North -6.342 71.014 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 1250 Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
CTBTO basin Diego Garcia-South -7.645 72.474 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 1350 Yes no approval needed Yes CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
NEMO 25 km East Sicily 37.3211N 15.3625E seismic, shipping, Navy geophysical, whales Yes 10 Hz-96 kHz omni ms continuous continuous 2 x 4 2500 m Yes HOT site upon request No LFN/INGV geo-hazards 2005 + decades
JAMSTEC 100 km Hatsushima, Japan 35.0031N 139.2247E shipping whales Yes 1-50 Hz omni ms continuous continuous 1 2500 m Yes seismometers open No JAMSTEC geo-hazards 2005 + decades
ALOHA basin Hawaii 22 75 158.00 Yes broadband omni continuous continuous 1 4728m (bottom) Yes HOT site open, http://aco-ssds.soest.hawaii.edu/ Yes NSF exploration 2011 + decades
PMRF ~2500 km2 Hawaii military, shipping mysticetes, odontocetes, beaked whale Yes ~50 Hz-45 kHz N 502 μs continuous continuous 200 ~150-4000 m Mixed SVP upon request, screened Yes U.S. Navy >2022
OOI RSN 1000 km Juan de Fuca Plate (Oregon/Washington USA) fishing, shipping, some Navy hydrothermal vents, odontocetes, pinnipeds, whales climate changes in animal distributions possible Yes 7 planned nodes - each with seismic sensors and broadband phones 5 Hz-1 kHz (seismic); 100 Hz-90 kHz (two overlapping broadband phones sampled 250 kHz) omni 1s continuous real-time (data transmission rate 10 kB/s) notionally 7 nodes each with multiple sensors on each variable (4 on shelf in 500-1000 m, 1 mid-plate in >3000 m and 2 on JdF Ridge in ~3000 m Yes various oceanographic and geophysical possible once operational (2013) Yes NSF - OOI ecosystem monitoring, research, education 2011-12 laying cables; 2013 operational with possible additional acoustic elements later
NEPTUNE 100 km Juan de Fuca, British Columbia shipping geophysical, whales Yes 10 Hz-50 kHz hydrophones, 1 - 200 Hz seismometers, 360 s - 50 Hz seismometers omni ms in use, 10 μs capable continuous continuous 5, 4, 5 100-3000 m (bottom) No CTD, ADCP, echo, cameras, chemical, BPR, fluorometer open Yes CFI/Canada biodiversity, ecosystems 2009 + decades
CTBTO basin Juan Fernandez Island-North -33.449 -78.938 low Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 820m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
CTBTO basin Juan Fernandez Island-South -33.823 -78.846 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 810m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
JAMSTEC 100 km Kushiro 1, Japan 41.6870N 144.3945E shipping whales Yes 1-50 Hz omni ms continuous continuous 1 2500 m Yes seismometers open No JAMSTEC geo-hazards 2005 + decades
JAMSTEC 100 km Kushiro 2, Japan 45.9408N 145.0562E shipping whales Yes 1-50 Hz omni ms continuous continuous 1 2500 m Yes seismometers open No JAMSTEC geo-hazards 2005 + decades
JAMSTEC 100 km Kushiro 3, Japan 49.2528N 144.8107E shipping whales Yes 1-50 Hz omni ms continuous continuous 1 2500 m Yes seismometers open No JAMSTEC geo-hazards 2005 + decades
ANTARES 50 km Ligurian Sea 43.0846N 5.2115E seismic, shipping, Navy geophysical, whales Yes 100 Hz-125 kHz omni ms continuous continuous 36 2000 m (bottom) Yes telescope upon request Yes ANTARES collaboration Neutrino Observatory 2000 + decades
ARGOMARINE regional Ligurian Sea shipping Yes 10 Hz-70 kHz tetra array continuous continuous 4 20 m (bottom) Yes compass NATO countries Yes NURC security, communication 2011 + decade
SOSUS ~3000 km2 Northeast Pacic shipping whales Yes 10 Hz - 500 Hz omni 1s continuous semi-annual 1 deep bottom, exact N/A Yes no TBD; request required No U.S. Navy / APL-UW military 1950s - ???
OBSEA 10 km Northwest Mediterranean Sea 41.1819N 1.7523E shipping fish, whales Yes 10 Hz-200 kHz omni ms continuous continuous 1 20 m Yes CTD, video, meteorology upon request Yes UPC meteorology 2009 + decades
SOCAL ~1350 km2 Southern California military, shipping mysticetes, odontocetes, beaked whale Yes ~50 Hz-45 kHz N 501 μs continuous continuous 170 ~1100-2500 m Mixed SVP upon request, screened Yes U.S. Navy >2021
VENUS 50 km Strait of Georgia, British Columbia shipping fish, geophysical, whales Yes 10 Hz-50 kHz H ms continuous continuous 9 100-300 m (bottom) No CTD, ADCP, echo, sediment, irradiance, fluorometer open Yes CFI/Canada biodiversity, ecosystems 2006 + decades
CTBTO basin Wake Island-North 19.713 166.891 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 750m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades
CTBTO basin Wake Island-South 18.508 166.702 Yes 1-100 Hz H continuous continuous 6 (2 triads) 750m Yes no approval needed No CTBTO nuclear monitoring early 2000s + decades

Fixed Autonomous Systems

relates to time synchrony between elements and between the GPS time. specifies the time interval between data downloads. is the depth at which the sensors are located. indicates whether or not the acoustic system is calibrated. highlights other data available or planned from the same region of the acoustic sensors. conveys how accessible the data are to the public. refers to the original and/or current sponsor providing funding support for the system. indicates the societal purpose for which the system was originally designed reports the years of system installation and projected life expectancy of the system.
Title Geographical Scale Locationsort descending Latitude Longitude Human Activity Natural Activity Projected Change Acoustics Operational Units (Auto) Mode (Mobile) Frequency Bandwith Directionality Time Synch/Precision Duty Cycle Data Downloads # Elements Depth Calibrated Ancillary Data Data Availability Integration Possibility Sponsor Society Value Installation Life Expectancy Audio Clips
AUSOMS regional Andaman Sea, Okinawa Island variable variable Yes bottom mounted and mooring 20 Hz-22 kHz, max: 20 Hz-96 kHz stereo 22 μs continuous, programmable 15 days 2 60 m
DASAR regional Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea oil & gas whales climate, shipping, fishing DASAR 1-500 Hz directional ~40 50-100 m oil & gas oil & gas 2008-2009 +
AURALs regional Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea oil & gas whales climate, shipping, fishing AURAL 1 Hz-16 kHz omni programmable ~30 50-100 m oil & gas oil & gas 2008-2009 +
IOPAS regional Baltic Sea shipping, oil platform fish migrations Yes 100 Hz-50 kHz V, H ms adaptive 6 months up to 8 150 m Yes pressure, temperature, echo upon request Yes Polish national programs exploration, weather, physical research 2005 + decade
NOAA EcoFOCI regional Bering low seasonal ice climate, shipping, fishing Yes AURAL omni 16% 6-12 months 3-4 70 m Yes CTD, ADCP, echo, chl, oxygen, nutrients Yes PMEL/NMML biodiversity, ecosystems 2008 + 5 years
NOAA EcoFOCI regional Bering Sea low seasonal ice climate, shipping, fishing Yes PAL 20 Hz-50 kHz omni 10s s adaptive (2-5 min) 6-12 months 2 70 m Yes CTD, ADCP, echo, chl, oxygen, nutrients yes Yes ONR/PMEL biodiversity, ecosystems 2008 + 5 years
ABB (SIO RAS) regional Black and Baltic seas fishing, shipping, climate Yes AURAL 1 Hz-32 kHz omni+V ms continuous, programmable 3-4 months 2 6000 m Yes upon request Yes Russian Academy of Science exploration, weather, physical research 2003 + decade
ESTOC-PLOCAN regional Central-Eastern Atlantic (ESTOC site) 29.1667N 15.3000W shipping, volcanic tremor whales (migratory and permanent) No under definition under definition under definition under definition under definition 6 months under definition sound channel ESTOC station suite of instruments: including current, wind, salinity, CTD profiles, chl, oxygen, nutrients data policy under denition Spain Ministry of Science and Innovation and Canary Islands govt exploration, weather, physical research 1995 until 2025
JASCO-AMARs regional Chukchi Sea, 8-160 km offshore oil & gas exploration mysticetes, odontocetes, pinnipeds Yes JASCO-AMARs 5 Hz - 8 kHz omni & synchronised arrays ms continuous, 17% every July & Oct 35 AMARs & 9 AURALs 20-50 m Yes temperature approval needed, upon request Yes Shell, Conoco Phillips, Statoil marine mammal migration, distribution, density; baseline ambient noise 2006-2016
ARCTIC-NET+ regional Eastern Beaufort Sea Canadian Archipelago Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay none to occasional shipping and airgun seismic whales, Arctic marine life climate, fishing, shipping Yes AURALs 1Hz-16 kHz omni s programmable to continuous 3 to 12 months per year up to 8 50-250 m Yes oceanographic sensors, ADCPs, hydroacoustics research programs Yes Arctic-Net DFO UQAR Arctic pre-industrial background, Inuit communities, climate change, ice melting, whale monitoring 2003-2013+
Ocean Tracking Network basin Global fishing, oil & gas exploration, shipping, Also including tidal power, aquaculture fish, odontocetes, acoustically tagged fish, marine mammals, and invertebrates As per OTN and affiliates' data policies Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI)
PAL regional Ionian Sea shipping whales Yes 20 Hz-50 kHz omni 10s s adaptive (2-5 min) 6 months 1 500 m Yes yes Yes Poseidon rainfall 2008 + 5 years
EARS regional Ligurian Sea shipping whales Yes 0-40 kHz omni up to 50% 40 days 5 850 m Yes NATO countries Yes NURC MMRM 2011
Hydra regional Ligurian Sea shipping whales Yes 10 Hz-70 kHz tetra array continuous 53 days 4 1000 m Yes compass, tilt NATO countries Yes NURC MMRM 2011
BIMET coastal N. Atlantic (Spain) shipping, geophysics whales Yes 10 Hz-120 kHz omni ms continuous continuous 1 100 m Yes no upon request No AZTI MMRM 2011 + decades
IMOS Northwest WA regional northwest shelf, Western Australia shipping, seismic surveys fish, whales unknown Yes Curtin Univ. Loggers CMST-DSTO 1 Hz - 6 kHz omni ms 200-500 s / 900 s 12 months 4 + 2 250-300m Yes temperature & nearby oceanography IMOS Western Australian govt various 2012-2014
PMEL large scale Pacic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Davis Strait whales climate, shipping PMEL autonomous hydrophone omni H s PME PMEL/NMML earthquakes, whales, ocean basin
HARP regional Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Hawaiian Islands, Chukchi Sea, etc. oil & gas exploration, shipping, sonar fish, ice, wind, rain, earthquakes, marine mammals biological and human sound sources Yes bottom mounted, mooring, WaveGlider 10 Hz-160 kHz omni and 4-sensor directional array 5-10 ms continuous, programmable 4-18 months 1-4 sensors per deployment 100-1000 m Yes CTD approval needed, upon request Navy, NOAA, BP ecosystems, marine mammals, shipping 2005-2020
IMOS Perth Canyon regional Perth Canyon, Western Australia shipping, seismic surveys whales shipping, increase from whales Yes Curtin Univ. Loggers CMST-DSTO 1 Hz - 6 kHz omni ms 200 to 500 s / 900 s 12 months 4 430-500 m Yes temperature IMOS Australian govt various 2008-2013
POI 100 km Sakhalin Island (Russia) oil exploration/production whales increased industrial activity Yes AUR 2 Hz - 15 kHz omni continuous weeks to months 15-20 10 & 20 m (up to 100 m) Yes SVP measurements, current measurements very limited No SEIC, ExxonMobile industry monitoring 2005 - deployed annually
PAMBUOY 100 to 100s kms Sakhalin Island variable seismic, shipping, sonar, oil platform, pile driving whales, other marine animals biological and human sound sources Yes 10-150 Hz omni continuous continuous 1 5-50 m Yes
SBNMS regional SBNMS Arctic shipping whales Yes MARU Yes
IMOS Portland regional shelf break south Portland shipping, seismic surveys fish, whales, ocean noise Yes Curtin Univ. Loggers CMST-DSTO 1 Hz - 6 kHz omni ms 200 to 500 s / 900 s 12 months 4 130 - 160 m Yes temperature IMOS Australian govt various 2009-2013
IMOS NSW Australia regional shelf break west Cape Howe shipping fish, whales unknown Yes Curtin Univ. Loggers CMST-DSTO 1 Hz - 6 kHz omni ms 200 to 500 s / 900 s 12 months 4 150-190 m Yes temperature IMOS Australian govt various 2010-2013
IOPAS Spitsbergen Fjord shipping diving birds Yes 100 Hz-50 kHz V, H ms adaptive 6 months up to 8 150 m Yes pressure, temperature, echo upon request Yes Norwegian Funds exploration, weather, physical research 2006-2009, lost
SEAWAYS regional St. Lawrence Seaway, Lower St. Lawrence Estuary shipping whales shipping Yes AURAL + cabled/shore 1 Hz-100000 kHz omni +H μs to s programmable to continuous 3 to 12 months per year up to 10 75-300 m Yes hydrography, ADCPs, hydroacoustics, circulation modeling research program Yes DFO UQAR shipping MPA, marine park, whale watching 2003 - + eventual permanent SEAWAYS observatory
PAL regional Station PAPA, Pacific Ocean low Yes 20 Hz-50 kHz omni 10s s adaptive (2-5 min) 2 years 1 500 m Yes meteorology, waves yes Yes NOAA climate 2006 + 5 years
HAFOS basin Weddell Sea none, low whale migration no Yes sonovault, AURAL, cPOD 10-5000 Hz omni continuous 3 years 10 850 m No CTD, ADCP, echosounder yes Yes AWI whale migration monitoring 2011 + 10 yrs

Mobile Autonomous Systems

relates to time synchrony between elements and between the GPS time. specifies the time interval between data downloads. is the depth at which the sensors are located. indicates whether or not the acoustic system is calibrated. highlights other data available or planned from the same region of the acoustic sensors. conveys how accessible the data are to the public. refers to the original and/or current sponsor providing funding support for the system. indicates the societal purpose for which the system was originally designed reports the years of system installation and projected life expectancy of the system.
Title Geographical Scale Locationsort descending Latitude Longitude Human Activity Natural Activity Projected Change Acoustics Operational Units (Auto) Mode (Mobile) Frequency Bandwith Directionality Time Synch/Precision Duty Cycle Data Downloads # Elements Depth Calibrated Ancillary Data Data Availability Integration Possibility Sponsor Society Value Installation Life Expectancy Audio Clips
Argo basin global variable variable No drifting CTD Yes
AQARIUS basin global variable variable Yes drifting, Argo-like 50 kHz omni ms adaptive 7-10 days 45 1000 m Yes CTD open No NASA water budget, salinity, rainfall 2011 + 2
PLOCAN-Gliders basin global shipping, volcanic tremor whales No gliding under definition under definition under definition under definition 1000 m under definition Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation exploration, weather, physical research 2011-2025
Ocean Tracking Network gliders basin Global fishing, shipping, climate fish, whales, Passive acoustic monitoring for whales; acoustic tag monitoring for fish, invertebrates, marine mammals As per OTN and affiliates' data policies Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI)
CPAM local Ligurian Sea shipping whales No towed 20 Hz-80 kHz continuous continuous 6 150 m Yes pitch, roll, compass NATO countries Yes NURC MMRM 2011
NURC-Gliders regional Ligurian Sea shipping whales No gliding
SPURS basin North Atlantic Ocean variable variable Yes drifting, Argo-like 50 kHz omni ms adaptive 7-10 days 25 1000 m Yes CTD open No NASA water budget 2012
WaveGlider HARP regional Pacic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Hawaiian Islands, Chuckchi Sea, etc. oil & gas exploration, shipping, sonar fish, ice, wind, rain, earthquakes, marine mammals biological and human sources Yes WaveGlider 10 Hz-160 kHz omni and 4-sensor directional array 5-10 ms continuous, programmable 4-18 months 1-4 sensors per deployment 100-1000 m Yes CTD approval needed, upon request Navy, NOAA, BP ecosystems, marine mammals, shipping 2005-2020