Acoustic Conditions Affecting Sound Communication in Air and Underwater

TitleAcoustic Conditions Affecting Sound Communication in Air and Underwater
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsLarsen, Ole Næsbye, and Radford Craig
EditorSlabbekoorn, Hans, Dooling Robert J., Popper Arthur N., and Fay Richard R.
Book TitleEffects of Anthropogenic Noise on Animals
Pagination109-144
PublisherSpringer New York
CityNew York, NY
ISBN Number978-1-4939-8574-6
EndNote Rec Number12088
Abstract

Biodiversity across the animal kingdom is reflected in acoustic diversity, and the evolution of these signals is driven by the ability to produce and hear sounds within the complex nature of soundscapes. Signals from the sender are attenuated and their structure is changed during propagation to receivers, and other sounds contributing to the soundscape can interfere with signals intended for the receiver. Therefore, the message encoded in the sender’s signal may be difficult or impossible for the potential receiver to decode unless the receiver adapts behaviorally. This chapter discusses the potential effects of sound propagation and environmental sound on communication both in air and underwater. First, the wave equation is defined; second, attenuation, absorption and scattering principles are discussed in relation to physical sound propagation effects on the sender’s signal; and third, abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic sources of environmental noise are introduced and discussed. Environmental noise is present in all habitats, and soundscapes are getting louder, in part mostly due to increased anthropogenic noise inputs. Therefore, animals that rely on sound to communicate have to adapt and evolve to their local soundscape to get their message across.